A. ANGYAL tried (in 1941!) to clarify in the following way the meaning of the word "whole": "The term "whole" is frequently used with a very confusing double meaning. Sometimes the concrete organized object, other times the organization of the object is called a whole. The term is used in this latter connotation, for instance, when one states that a circle may be small or large, drawn in red or green color, and still remain the same whole, the same Gestalt. I propose that the term "whole" be reserved to designate the concrete organized object itself. The way of arrangement of parts, should becalled system" (in F.E. EMERY, 1969, p.28).
After more than fifty years, the matter is not yet settled. Many authors seem to speak of "concrete systems", but J.L.LE MOIGNE considers that the system is a model.
In any case, it is of paramount importance never to confuse real objects (i.e., as we are able to perceive them), with conceptual abstractions.
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Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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