Innovative behavior of a system or network that does not exist in any of its elements or parts.
Emerging behavior results from the combined interactions of some or many elements. Some of the interactions are simultaneous in different parts of the network or system, while others are sequential. This situation may lead either to what St. KAUFFMAN (1991) calls anti-chaos, i.e. organization at a higher level of complexity, or deterministic chaos.
In multi-agent systems global behavior emerges from the interactions of numerous "agents", whose abilities are more or less elementary and specific. This is a typical social network situation. It also seems to promise complex societies of simple robots in the future.
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Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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