F. VESTER thus defines and comments the basic rules of biocybernetics:
"1. Negative feedbacks must predominate over positive ones.
… Positive feedbacks provoke reinforcements. Negative ones protect stability against perturbations and avoid thresholds overcrossings.
"2. Systems functions must be independent from growth.
… Energetic and material flows become constant in the long run. This limits the influence of irreversibility and uncontrolled crossings of values limits.
"3. The system should be function oriented, not product oriented.
… Resulting variability enhances flexibility and accomodation. The system becomes able to survive variable requirements.
"4. Use of available forces, according to the Jiu-Jitsu principle instead of boxing method.
… Outside energy is better used (energy cascades and chains), while internal energy is mainly used for steering. This enhances self regulation.
"5. Multiple use of functions, organizational structures and products.
… This reduces flows, increases integration and reduces energy, matter and information expenditures.
"6. Recycling. Re-use through cyclical processes of waste and residual heat.
… Amalgamates outputs. When flows become cyclically organized, irreversibilities and dependences are restricted.
"7. Symbiosis. Reciprocal use through exchange and harmonious coupling.
… Favours limited runoffs and shorter transport lines. Diminishes flows and external dependence while increasing internal dependence. Limits energy use.
"8. Biological design of products, processes and organizational structures through feedbacks planning with the environment.
… Takes endogenous and exogenous rhythms into account, as well as useful functional matches. Harmonizes the system's dynamics. Allows for the integration of new elements, in accordance with the eight basic rules" (Adapted from F. VESTER – 1983, p.82).
These basic rules could seemingly be extend to groups and social systems, as a groundwork for sociocybernetics.
- 1) General information
- 2) Methodology or model
- 3) Epistemology, ontology and semantics
- 4) Human sciences
- 5) Discipline oriented
To cite this page, please use the following information:
Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
We thank the following partners for making the open access of this volume possible: