"A field of research intended… to establish super-additive nonlinear composition rules for the elements of living systems" (I.V. BLAUBERG, V.N. SADOVSKY & E.G. YUDIN, 1977, p.160).
This field was introduced by H.von FOERSTER (1958, p.240-255), who spoke of "biological computers" and established the differences between the ways of internal organization of electronic computers and living systems.
In these, "… as the general case, the function "phi" of the whole exceeds the sum of the functions of the parts:
Φ (x,y) > Φ (x) + Φ (y)
(BLAUBERG et al, p.160).
The subsequent development of biologics led to the concepts of autopoiesis, self-reference, eigen-values and organizational closure, and to a better understanding of neural networks.
More recently, it seems to open the way toward a still more general understanding of social nets and kinds of "social robotics" and highly parallel computing (connection machines).
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Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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