"A set of rules" (R. ROSEN, 1972, p.63).
This term, introduced in this sense by ROSEN, is useful, as it conveys in a kind of short-hand a meaning of interconnected globality.
A grammar prescribes a combinatorics stating admitted congruences, and defines constraints in any communication language.
"The set of brain programs by which sentences are generated" (J.Z. YOUNG, 1978, p. 293).
Such programs, whose description and even nature are still quite far to be completely understood, are related to at least three aspects of natural languages: the formation of phonemes (elemental sounds), of morphemes (words) and the rules for the construction of sentences.
The construction of meanings seems to be still at a fourth level, since it is perfectly possible to construct appearently well structured sentences, devoid however from any meaning, as for ex. "Ospakat waza umbin sra dnefgo"(which has no sense at all), or the following:
"Mutoto alivunja sahani moya", which is significant in Kiswahili… if your brain did assimilate the meaning code corresponding to that language.
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Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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