B. WALLISER establishes in the following way a typology of hierarchies:
"- Qualitative hierarchies in which various objects are classified according to the similarity of their properties in some homogeneous subcategory, various of which become in turn grouped in a larger category. This leads from a particular level to a more general one through various steps, by way of a subdivision link.
"- Structural hierarchies in which various objects are collected according to their spatial proximity in some homogeneous subset, various of which become in turn integrated into a wider set. This leads from some micro-level to a macrolevel through various strata, by way of a subjacency link.
"- Functional hierarchies in which various entities are submitted to the deciding authority of a superior regulating entity, various of which This leads from an infra level to a supra level through various "echelons" by way of a subordination link.
"- Genetic hierarchies in which various entities come from an original common entity by temporal filiation, various of these latter themselves coming from an older one. This leads from a former to a later level through successive generations by way of a sequential link (1991, p.72-3).
WALLISER shows in his paper how these four basic types of hierarchies show up in the most varied systems and gives numerous examples.
- 1) General information
- 2) Methodology or model
- 3) Epistemology, ontology and semantics
- 4) Human sciences
- 5) Discipline oriented
To cite this page, please use the following information:
Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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