A parable about two watchmakers, by H. SIMON showing the conditions for the evolution of complex systems, demonstrating that "…a system composed of independent stable subsystems can withstand perturbations to a significantly higher degree than systems build directly from their components" (1974, p.223).
In short, interconnecting pre-ordained subsystems is a more efficient way to construct a complex entity, rather than to do it from a mere mass of unrelated elements.
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Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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